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Leather processing

In an age of plastics, metals and synthetics, leather has kept its place as a product of superior quality. As a result, tanning remains an essential economic activity. Leather processing can be done at the small-scale or large-scale level, all to varying degrees of sophistication.

The tanning industry has been subject to important challenges and changes. Foremost has been the introduction of processing technologies with less impact on the environment. As the production of finished leather is concentrated in developing countries, UNIDO, together with other partners, have provided support to enhance tanning industry practices in developing countries.

Cleaner leather production technologies remain UNIDO’s main focus in the field of leather processing. Cleaner production applications include green hide and skin processing (supply of raw material from slaughterhouses without preservation, e.g. salting), water management (use minimum volume of process water), recycling (e.g. in liming) and chromium recovery (after tanning), hair saving (to reduce dissolved solids in effluent) and application of environmentally friendly chemicals (e.g. enzymes). Special attention is also given to occupational health and safety (OHS) in tanneries.

The study titled Life Cycle Assessment, Carbon Footprint in Leather Processing prepared for and presented by F. Brugnoli during the XVIII Session of UNIDO Leather and Leather Products Industry Panel in Shanghai in 2012 provided detailed explanations, definitions and terminology pertaining to leather’s carbon footprint.

It also contained specific suggestions on how to proceed in addressing this issue. Subsequently, it was not only extensively discussed by eminent international leather specialists, but it has triggered a series of activities involving different regional and global establishments.

The essence of that paper, reactions to it and some other views were reflected in a special chapter in UNIDO’s comprehensive study The Framework for Sustainable Leather  Manufacture, a chapter dealing with carbon footprint aspects of leather processing.

That chapter is now here presented as separate paper for the benefit of readers primarily interested in the carbon footprint considerations. 

In addition to earlier content, the paper also presents the main features of the European Standard EN 16887 (approved in Nov 2016, published in March 2017, applicable not later than Sept 2017) Leather – Environmental footprint – Product Category Rules (PCR) – Carbon footprints. It is quite likely that the European norm will prevail globally.

UNIDO on-line learning How to deal with hydrogen sulphide gas

Confronted with increasing legal and social pressures, no tanner can afford the luxury of not being familiar with the main issues and principles of occupational, safety and health protection pertaining to tannery operations.

Hydrogen sulphide gas present in tanneries and effluent treatment plants has proven fatal to workers exposed to it many times.

See also Safety Video - How to deal with hydrogen sulhide gas

It is therefore necessary that the owners and managers of tanneries and effluent treatment plants are fully aware of the dangers posed by this poisonous gas and take all preventive and precautionary measures to protect the workforce from exposure to this gas. In the event of accidental exposure of a worker, they should know how to deal with the situation.

The lessons that follow are to help tanners, tannery managers and operators to acquaint themselves with the basic principles How to deal with hydrogen sulphide gas.

The on-line course developed by UNIDO including test provides an opportunity for the proper training within tanneries related to danger associated with hydrogen sulphide gas. After finishing the test with minimum score 80%, participants will receive the certificate and will be able to download it.

How to enrol into the UNIDO on-line course “ How to deal with hydrogen sulphide gas”?

Follow a link: https://learning.unido.org/course/view.php?id=42 

Enrolment key: H2Safety

 

It is hoped that the certificate will be accepted also by Occupational Safety and Health Authorities as a proof that staff was properly trained.

Hydrogen supplied gas present in tanneries and effluent treatment plants (ETPs) has proven fatal to workers exposed to it many times.

It is therefore necessary that the owners and managers of tanneries and effluent treatment plants are fully aware of the dangers posed by this poisonous gas and take all preventive and precautionary measures to protect the workforce from exposure to this gas. In the event of accidental exposure of a worker, they should know how to deal with the situation.

UNIDO’s activities in the leather processing has as one of its important objectives, improvement of occupational safety and health practices in tanneries and effluent treatment plants. Under this objective, the project has been seeking to demonstrate in selected tanneries improvement practices for better occupational health and safety of the workers.

It is hoped that the industry representatives and other concerned with the occupational health and safety of workers in tanneries and effluent treatment plants will find this publication useful.

Throughout the world, women make a vital contribution to industrial output.. Their work not only sustains their families, but also makes a major contribution to socio-economic progress. The creativity and talents of all women are an invaluable resource, which can and should be developed both for their own selfrealization and for the benefit of society as a whole.

The key to enhancing women’s opportunities, and hence their position in industry and the economy, is to provide them with access to know-how, technologies and credit. Training to upgrade women’s technological capabilities and to enhance their entrepreneurial and business skills, whether in simple artisanal production or in high technology industries, is at the heart of allowing women to advance to more rewarding positions. All these activities are an integral part of UNIDO’s technical assistance programmes.

The case-studies presented in this series of brochures demonstrate that engament of women women and gender neutral management can be also for benefit of the leather sector.

Machines and mechanical equipment play an important role in modern tanneries. Though these results in increased productivity, their use has also introduced new hazards into the tanneries.

One element of OHS, which is contained in the knowledge and expertise of the workforce, is the skill of re blading.

Malpractice and lack of knowledge in this area, have initiated the manufacturing of the manual presented in this report. This report is prepared as a manual for re blading of cylinders, for the use in ttanning industry.

The paper presents the results of the implementation of solar collectors in three Bangladeshi tanneries as well as of energy audit in four Bangladeshi tanneries to evaluate and improve their electrical performance.

It is well known that tanneries use high amounts of hot water and electricity, and today energy costs are raising very fast all over the world, with energy costs increasing their share in the costs of leather production. Other problem especially in developing countries are frequent power cuts and problems with energy supply. Tannery relocation planned in Bangladesh from Hazaribagh to new Tannery Estate Dhaka is an opportunity to implement measures to reduce energy consumption which should lead to reduced costs for production but also reduced GHG production. Therefore, within the Re-Tie-Bangladesh project (Reduction of Environmental Threats and Increase of Exportability of Bangladeshi Leather Products1) UNIDO has implemented two actions to reduce energy costs in Bangladeshi tanneries: use of solar energy - solar water heating and electrical performance improvement.

The Global Leather Coordinating Committee (GLCC) in 2013 sought to identify real and perceived strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of importance to the leather industry. This paper sets down a mosaic of major issues stemming from these considerations.This paper was published in the World Leather (February/March 2014).

Th report provides an overview of publications, standards and references for the calculation of the Product Carbon Footprint (PCF) of the product Finished Leather together with recommendations for harmonization and the main elements needed to define system boundaries. The inherent complexity and inadequate exactness of carbon footprint analyses contrasts with the need to communicate the results in a simple, clear and unambiguous way. The report was prepared for and presented by Mr. F. Brugnoli  in the 18th  UNIDO Leather Panel in Shanghai/China September/2012

International concern has increased over the years on Climate Change. The ten hottest years on record have all occurred since 1998. Out of the last 21 years 18 are among the 20 warmest years since 1880. Data and findings add weight to the common conclusion that the clear long-term trend is one of global warming. Most of the observed increase in global average temperature since the mid - 20th century is very likely due to the observed rise in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations. Among these, particular attention is paid on CO2 (carbon dioxide). Latest estimates show that global CO2 emissions increased to 30,600 million tonnes in 2010. Industry and manufacturing contribute for 19% of all Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Interest has been developed in estimating the total amount of GHG produced during the various stages in the life cycle of products. The outcome of these calculations, are referred to as Product Carbon Footprints (PCFs). Currently, there is no single methodology and no agreement has been reached internationally on Leather PCF calculation methods.

Ажлын байранд гарч болох аюул, эрсдлүүдийг таниулах, осол гэмтлийн үед эмнэлгийн тусламж ирэхээс өмнө цаг алдалгүй, өөртөө болон бусдад анхны тусламжийг аюулгүй, зөв үзүүлэх мэдлэг, чадварыг олгох зорилготой “Ажлын байранд анхны тусламж үзүүлэх нь” цахим хичээл Монгол хэлнээ нээгдлээ.

Сургалтын материалд бодит жишээг гутал, арьс шир боловсруулах үйлдвэрийн орчинд авч үзсэн байгаа ч аливаа осол гэмтлийн үед анхны тусламж үзүүлэх арга нь ижил тул сургалтын материалыг ноос, ноолуур, уул уурхай, барилга зэрэг дурын салбарт ашиглах боломжтой. Салбарын онцлогоос хамаарч 8 модулиас хэрэгцээ шаардлагын дагуу сонгон хэрэгжүүлж болох юм. Цахим хичээлийг сонирхсон хүмүүс Интернэтэд холбогдсон суурин болон зөөврийн компьютер, таблет, ухаалаг утас ашиглан хүссэн цагтаа хаанаас ч үзэж судлах боломжтой

 

Нэмэлт мэдээлэл

 Цахимаар суралцах талбар 

https://learning.unido.org/course/view.php?id=40   (copy and paste this link into browser)

Цахим курст бүртгүүлэх заавар ба төслийн танилцуулга https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1gClR2hm_UNXcpZLNmxzEfsnGGNhrnQ9w

Dissolving the hair substance in the course of liming and unhairing entails a high load of organic pollution in wastewater; as the environmental demands have grown acute, it has become necessary to further reduce wastewater pollution load as much as possible. Hair-save technology, using only chemicals traditionally applied in liming, is among simple and good options towards achieving that aim. Hair-save unhairing is far from being a general practice as yet, but in future the increase of environmental costs and external pressures might make it more attractive. In addition to process description, equipment requirements, the scope for utilization of hairs obtained as well as cost considerations are also provided.

For an easy reference older papers are also available.

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