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UNIDO has prepared and published over one hundred publications, papers, manuals and guidelines, primarily aimed at technical experts and policy makers in developing countries, though many are used by sector-related institutions and development organizations elsewhere.

The website www.leatherpanel.org is intended to provide an easy access to information sources on the leather, footwear and leather products industry, as well as to UNIDO publications related to the leather sector in one place, including earlier publications that were previously only available in hard copy.

The main objective of this survey presented during 14th UNIDO Leather Panel in Zlin/Czech Republic is two fold: to clarify actual differences in direct manufacturing costs of footwear production in selected countries and to review the proportion of different cost components/structures in the case of comparable labour intensive products such as footwear and/or its upper. As styles vary considerably (mainly due to fashion and market demands) and systems of costing used in different parts of the world are far from being uniform, a common scheme of costing had to be established. This was based on more or less standard types of shoe styles and on a suggested, simple cost computation algorithm.

Paper presented during the 12th UNIDO Leather and Leather Products panel 1995 provides an overview about the professional training. Conclusion is that, there is no reason for having different training programmes in industrialized and developing countries, so the creation of a uniform syllabus for the leather, footwear and other leather products is not only an opportunity but also a necessity - not to mention the financial rationale (economic scale of printing text books, producing illustration materials and training software).

What is future of the chrome tanning? What will be used as a tanning agent in horizont of 50 years? In this paper prepared in 1999 Mr. Frendrup analyzed possible trends and scenarios of leather manufacture. Many issues and predictions are still relevant, especially those concerning the recent EU regulations. For additional information see also IULTCS papers concerning chrome tanning http://www.iultcs.org/pdf/IUR-1_Chromiumandleatherresearch_Abalancedview...

 


 

Total dissolved solids (TDS), specifically chlorides, in effluent are a major concern for its discharge into surface waters and its use for irrigation. Conventional treatment systems do not help reduce TDS in the industrial effluent. Taking advantage of the sunshine available for most part of the year, tanneries in Tamil Nadu, India, were required by the regulatory authority to segregate highly saline effluent (soak and pickle streams)  and evaporate it in solar pans. Due to very dissapointing results of evaporation in solar pans attempts have been made to accelerate the evaporation by simple means like combination of improved warming of the effluent and use of sprinklers. This paper reports on results of these pilot scale tests carried out under UNIDO Regional Programme in India during late 90's.

In market economies, specifically within (the present global) competitive market conditions actual performance of businesses is measured by the (international) market itself: efficient operations remain in business, produce profit and have potential to develop. In case of productive sectors of the economy, namely the agriculture, the industry, the trade and services such assessment having a post-facto character carries the risk of being late, i.e. it may jeopardize the business itself if it does not have sufficient resources to take corrective actions. Specifically assessment of industrial entities such as (sub)sectors, companies and production units plays an important role for governments and managements as its – timely obtained – results enable decision makers to initiate necessary actions.
The above considerations triggered the preparation of this study. In order to demonstrate practical applicability and usefulness of benchmarking, revealing good manufacturing practices and how thy can serve performance assessment in the industry, the paper is focusing – as an example – on footwear manufacturing and trade.

This paper was presented during the 15th UNIDO Leather Panel and later successfuly used in UNIDO TA to benchmark footwear sector and companies.

Paper was prepared based on visits to some major footwear and leather training establishments in Europe and their training systems, methodology and syllabi . Information on professional education and training were collected from several other countries (e.g. Brasil, Hungary, South Africa). Experience gained through previous UNIDO assistance with regards human resource development was also considered. Outline proposals were prepared for discussion by the 13th UNIDO Leather Panel in Bologna in November 1997. A five stage structure was proposed which would allow trainees in any country to progress against known standards to the benefit of their company and themselves.

The survey is intended to cover the environmental impacts and health issues of the footwear and leather goods industries with particular reference to solid waste, air pollution and chemicals. The review covers quantification of solid wastes, technology available for reducing environmental impact and health risks and legislation. It was presented during th 13th UNIDO Leather Panel, Bologna November 1997.

The Regulation of the European Union (EU) on Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals, REACH entered into force on 1st June 2007. Its proclaimed aims were to ensure a higher level of protection of human health and the environment as well as free movement of substances, on their own, in preparations and in articles, while enhancing competitiveness and innovation.

This Regulation should also promote the development of alternative methods for the assessment of hazards of substances. REACH was also expected to streamline and improve the former legislative framework on chemicals in order to improve the protection of human health and the environment from the risks that can be posed by chemicals, especially by those listed as Substances of Very High Concern (SVHC) The purpose of this desk study was to give some background information and practical advice to the leather industry so as to maintain or establish business in the EU market.

 

Paper prepared and presented by Mr. P. Hlavacek during the 14th UNIDO Leather panel Meeting in Zlin/Czech Republic

The present report provides production ratios of solid wastes in leather, footwear and other leather products manufacture and analyse why such wastes are produced and analyses possible solutions in order to reduce the quantity of waste, or to recycle them. 

The report was prepared by C.T.C. for the 14th UNIDO Leather Panel session.

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